Thomas Malone

Patrick J. McGovern (1959) Professor of Management
Professor of Information Technology
Director, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence

Biography | Selected Publications

"Theory of Mind Predicts Collective Intelligence." D. Engel, A. W. Woolley, L. X. Xing, C. F. Chabris and Thomas W. Malone.  (2014)

"Why Women Make Teams Smarter." Malone, Thomas W. Strategy and Business, May 2014. 

"How Millions of People can Help Solve Climate Change." W. Malone, Thomas, Robert Laubacher and Laur Fisher. PBS Nova. (2014)

"Why Interpersonal Skills are More Important than you Think." Malone, Thomas W. Techonomy 2013 Conference, November 2013. 

"Humans, Machines, and the New Collective Intelligence." Malone, Thomas W. IBM Research Colloquium, 2013.

"The Future of Work with MIT's Thomas W. Malone." Bishop, Matthew and Thomas W. Malone. The Economist, 2013.

"Exploring the power of collective learning." Malone, Thomas W. World Economic Forum, 2013. 

"Solving Wicked Social Problems with Socio-computational Systems." Introne, J., R. Laubacher, G. Olson and Thomas W. Malone. ​KI - Künstliche Intelligenz Vol. 27, No. 1 (2013): 45-52.  (2013)

"Improving predictions with hybrid markets." Y. Nagar and Thomas W. Malone. In Proceedings of the 2012 American Association of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Fall Symposium on Machine Aggregation of Human Judgment. Palo Alto, CA: November 2012. 

"Programming the Global Brain." Bernstein, A., M. Klein and Thomas W. Malone. Communications of the ACM Vol. 55, No. 5 (2012): 41-43.  (2012)

"Making Business Predictions by Combining Human and Machine Intelligence in Prediction Markets." Y. Nagar and Thomas W. Malone. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems ICIS 2011. New York, NY: December 2011. 

"ROMA: A Framework to Enable Open Development Methodologies in Climate Change Assessment Modeling." Introne, J., R. Laubacher and Thomas W. Malone. IEEE Software Vol. 28, No. 6 (2011): 56-61.  (2011)

"The Age of Hyperspecialization." Malone, Thomas W., R. Laubacher and T. Johns. Harvard Business Review, August 2011. 

"Defend your Research: What Makes a Team Smarter?" Woolley, Anita and Thomas W. Malone. Harvard Business Review, June 2011.

"ROMA: A framework to enable open development methodologies in climate change assessment modeling." Introne, J., R. Laubacher and Thomas W. Malone, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence Working Paper 2011-003. 

"The Business Models Investors Prefer." Weill, Peter, Thomas W. Malone and Thomas G. Apel. Sloan Management Review, June 2011. 

"The Climate CoLab: Large Scale Model-based Collaborative Planning." J. Introne, R. Laubacher, G. Olson and Thomas W. Malone. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS2011), edited by Waleed W. Smari & Geoffrey C. Fox. New York, NY: May 2011.

"Construction by Replacement: A New Approach to Simulation Modeling." Hines, James H., Thomas W. Malone, Paulo Gonçalves, George Herman, John Quimby, Mary Murphy-Hoye, James Rice, James Patten and Hiroshi Ishii. System Dynamics Review Vol. 27, No. 1 (2011): 64-90.  (2011)

"20 Years of Research in Electronic Markets and Networked Business: An Interview with Thomas Malone." Wigand, R.  and Thomas W. Malone. Electronic Markets Vol. 21, No. 1 (2011): 5-17.  (2011)

"Combining Human and Machine Intelligence for Making Predictions." Y. Nagar and Thomas W. Malone. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Social Science and the Wisdom of Crowds (Neural Information Processing Systems NIPS 2010 Conference). Whistler, Canada: December 2010. 

"Scientific Foundations: A Case for Technology-Mediated Social-Participation Theory." Malone, Thomas W., R. Kraut, M. L. Maher, J. Olson, P. Pirolli and J. C. Thomas. Computer Vol. 43, No. 11 (2010): 22-28.  (2010)

"Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups." Williams Woolley, Anita, Christopher F. Chabris, Alex Pentland, Nada Hashmi and Thomas W. Malone. Science Vol. 330, No. 6004 (2010): 686-688.  (2010)

"The Collective Intelligence Genome." Malone, Thomas W., R. Laubacher and C. Dellarocas. IEEE Engineering Management Review Vol. 38, No. 3 (2010): 38-52.  (2010)

"The Collective Intelligence Genome." Malone, Thomas  W., R. Laubacher and C. Dellarocas. Sloan Management Review, April 2010. 

"Leadership Capabilities: Exercise Them to Develop a Signature Style." Ancona, Deborah, Thomas W. Malone, Wanda J. Orlikowski and Peter M. Senge. Leadership Excellence, February 2010.

"Harnessing Crowds: Mapping the Genome of Collective Intelligence." Malone, Thomas W., Robert Laubacher and Chrysanthos Dellarocas, MIT Sloan Research Paper 4732-09.  February 2009. 

"Harnessing Crowds: Mapping the Genome of Collective Intelligence." Malone, Thomas W., R. Laubacher and C. Dellarocas, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence Working Paper 2009-001. February 2009. 

"Looking to Wikipedia for Answers." Malone, Thomas W. Financial Times, December 2008.

"Leadership’s Online Labs." Reeves, B., Thomas W. Malone and T. O'Driscoll. Harvard Business Review, May 2008. 

"Object Lens: A "spreadsheet" for cooperative work." Lai, K. Y. and Thomas W. Malone, MIT Sloan Working Paper 2053-88.  (2008)

In Praise of the Incomplete Leader.” Ancona, Deborah, Thomas W. Malone, Wanda J. Orlikowski and Peter M. Senge. Harvard Business Review, February 2007.

"Do Some Business Models Perform Better than Others?" Malone, Thomas W., P. Weill, R. K. Lai, V. T. D'Urso, G. Herman, T. G. Apel and S. Woerner, MIT Sloan Working Paper 4615-06. May 2006. 

"Internal Markets for Supply Chain Capacity Allocation." McAdams, David and Thomas W. Malone, MIT Sloan Working Paper 4546-05. June 2005.

"Internal Markets for Supply Chain Capacity Allocation." McAdams, David, and Thomas W. Malone, MIT Sloan Working Paper 4546-05. June 2005. 

"Pioneers that cultivate a new model of work." Malone, Thomas W. Financial Times, August 2004. 

"Do Some Business Models Perform Better than Others?  A Study of the 1000 Largest US Firms." Weill, P., Thomas W. Malone, V. T. D'Urso, G. Herman and S. Woerner, MIT Sloan Working Paper. May 2004. 

The Future of Work: How the New Order of Business Will Shape Your Organization, Your Management Style, and Your Life. Malone, Thomas W. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2004. 

Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century. Malone, Thomas W., Robert Laubacher and Michael S. Scott Morton. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2003. 

"Retreat of the Firm and the Rise of Guilds: The Employment Relationship in an Age of Virtual Business." Malone, Thomas W. and R. J. Laubacher. In Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century, edited by Thomas W. Malone, Robert Laubacher and Michael S. Scott Morton. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. 

"What do we really want? A Manifesto for Organizations of the 21st Century Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century." Malone, Thomas W. and the MIT 21st Century Initiative Manifesto Working Group. In Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century, edited by edited by Thomas W. Malone, Robert Laubacher and Michael S. Scott Morton. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. 

"Inventing New Business Processes using a Process Repository." Klein, M., G. A. Herman, J. Lee, Thomas W. Malone and E. O'Donnell. In Organizing Business Knowledge: The MIT Process Handbook, edited by Thomas W. Malone, Kevin Crowston and George A. Herman, 379-402. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.

Organizing Business Knowledge:The MIT Process Handbook. Malone, Thomas W., Kevin Crowston and George A. Herman. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2003.

"The Process Recombinator: A Tool for Generating New Business Process Ideas." Bernstein, A., M. Klein and Thomas W. Malone. In Organizing Business Knowledge: The MIT Process Handbook, Thomas W. Malone, Kevin Crowston and George A. Herman, 403-422.  (2003)

"What is in the Process Handbook? An Overview of its Contents." Malone, Thomas W. and G. A. Herman. In Organizing Business Knowledge: The MIT Process Handbook, edited by Thomas W. Malone, Kevin Crowston and George A. Herman, 221-258. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. 

"Two Scenarios for 21st Century Organizations: Shifting Networks of Small Firms or All-Encompassing Virtual Countries?" Laubacher, Robert J., Thomas W. Malone and the MIT Scenario Working Group. Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century, edited by Thomas W. Malone, Robert Laubacher and Michael S. Scott Morton. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. 

"Retreat of the Firm and the Rise of Guilds: The Employment Relationship in an Age of Virtual Business." Malone, Thomas W. and R. J. Laubacher, MIT Sloan Working Paper 4129. July 2002.

Coordination Theory and Collaboration Technology. Olson, G. M., Thomas W. Malone and J. B. Smith. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2001. 

"The Process Recombinator:  A tool for generating new business process ideas." A. Bernstein, M. Klein and Thomas W. Malone. In ICIS '99 Proceedings of the 20th international conference on Information Systems, edited by Prabuddha De and Janice I. De Gross. Atlanta, GA: December 1999. 

"Tools for inventing organizations: Toward a handbook of organizational processes." Malone, Thomas W., K. G. Crowston, J. Lee, B. Pentland, C. Dellarocas, G. Wyner, J. Quimby, C. S. Osborn, A. Bernstein, G. Herman, M. Klein and E. O’Donnell. Management Science Vol. 45, No. 3 (1999): 425-443.  (1999)

"Inventing the Organizations of the Twenty-First Century: Control, Empowerment, and Information Technology." Malone, Thomas W. In Sense & Respond: Capturing Value in the Network Era edited by R. L. Nolan and S. P. Bradley, 263-284. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press, 1998. 

"Agents for Information Sharing and Coordination: A History and Some Reflections." Malone, Thomas W., K. Y. Lai and K. R. Grant. In Software Agents, edited by J. M. Bradshaw, 109-143. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997. 

"Flexible Work Arrangements and 21st Century Worker's Guilds." Laubacher, Robert J. and Thomas W. Malone, Working Paper. October 1997. 

"Two Scenarios for 21st Century Organizations: Shifting Networks of Small Firms or All-Encompassing 'Virtual Countries'?" Laubacher, Robert J. and Thomas W. Malone, Working Paper. January 1997. 

"Is Empowerment just a Fad? Control, Decision-making, and Information Technology." Malone, Thomas W. Sloan Management Review, January 1997. 

"Cowboys or Commanders:  Does Information Technology Lead to Decentralization?" George Wyner and Thomas W. Malone.  In Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Information Systems. Atlanta, GA: December 1996. 

"Organizing for the 21st Century." Malone, Thomas W., Michael S. Scott Morton and R.R. Halperin. Strategy & Leadership Vol. 24, No. 4 (1996): 7-10.  (1996)

"Experiments with Oval: A Radically Tailorable Tool for Cooperative Work." Malone, Thomas W., K. Y. Lai and C. Fry. ACM Transactions on Information Systems Vol. 13, No. 2 (1995): 177-205. (1995)

"Information Technology and the Productivity Paradox," Berndt, Ernst R. and Thomas W. Malone. Economics of Innovation and New Technology Vol. 3, No. 3 (1995): 177-182.  (1995)

“Does Information Technology Lead to Smaller Firms?” ​Brynjolfsson, Erik, Thomas W. Malone, Vijay Gurbaxani and Ajit Kambil. Management Science Vol. 40, No. 12 (1994): 1628-1644. (1994)

"Using a Process Handbook to Design Organizational Processes." C. Dellarocas, J. Lee, Thomas W. Malone, K. Crowston and B. Pentland. In Proceedings of the AAAI '94 Stanford Spring Symposium on Computational Organization Design. Palo Alto, CA: December 1994. 

"What is Coordination Theory and how can it Help Design Cooperative Work Systems?" Malone, Thomas W. and K. Crowston. In Groupware: Software for Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, edited by D. Marca and G. Bock. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1994.

"The Interdisciplinary Study of Coordination." Malone, Thomas W. and K. Crowston. ACM Computing Surveys Vol. 26, No. 1 (1994): 87-119.  (1994)

"Computer-Supported Co-Operative Work: Research Issues for the 90s." Olson, J., S. K. Card, T. K. Landauer, G. M. Olson, Thomas W. Malone and J. Leggett. Behavior and Information Techology Vol. 12, No. 2 (1993): 115-129.  (1993)

"Tools for inventing organizations:  Toward a handbook of organizational processes." Malone, Thomas W., K. Crowston, J. Lee and B. Pentland, MIT Center for Coordination Science Workling Paper 141. May 1993. 

"How Will Information Technology Reshape Organizations? Computers as Coordination Technology." Malone, Thomas W. and J. F.  Rockart. Globalization, Technology, and Competition, edited by R. L. Nolan, S. P. Bradley and J. A. Hausman. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1993.

"Toward Intelligent Tools for Information Sharing and Collaboration." Malone, Thomas W and K. Y. Lai Computer Augmented Teamwork: A Guided Tour, edited by R. P. Bostrom, R. T. Watson and S. T. Kinney. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992.

"Analogies Between Human Organizations and Artificial Intelligence Systems: Two Examples and Some Reflections." Malone, Thomas W. In Artificial Intelligence in Organization and Management Theory: Models of Distributed Activity, edited by M. Masuch and M. Warglien. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North Holland, 1992. 

"Information Technology and the New Organization." Thomas W. Malone and John F. Rockart. In Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences (HICSS '92). January 1992. 

"Computers, Networks, and the Corporation." Malone, Thomas W. and John F. Rockart. Scientific American, September 1991.

"Object Lens:  Letting end-Users Create Cooperative Work Applications." K. Y. Lai and Thomas W. Malone. In CHI 91 Conference on Human Factors in Computing, edited by Scott P. Robertson, Gary M. Olson and Judith S. Olson. New York, NY: May 1991. 

"What is Coordination Theory and How Can it Help Design Cooperative Work Tools?" Thomas W. Malone and K. Crowston. In Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work, edited by Frank Halasz. New York, NY: October 1990.  

"Organizing Information Processing Systems: Parallels Between Organizations and Computer Systems." Malone, Thomas W. Cognition, Computation, and Cooperation, edited by J. Black, S. Robertson and W. Zachary, 56-83. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp., 1990. 

"Answer Garden: A Tool for Growing Organizational Memory." Mark S. Ackerman and Thomas W. Malone. In COCS '90 Proceedings of the ACM SIGOIS and IEEE CS TC-OA conference on Office information systems, edited by Frederick H. Lochovsky and Robert B. Allen. New York, NY: April, 1990. 

"Partially Shared Views: A Scheme for Communicating among Groups that use Different Type Hierarchies." Lee, J. and Thomas W. Malone. ACM Transactions on Information Systems Vol. 8, No. 1 (1990): 1-26.  (1990)

"How Do Experienced Information Lens Users Use Rules?" W. E. Mackay, Thomas W. Malone, K. Crowston, R. Rao, D. Rosenblitt and S. Card. In CHI '89 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, edited by K. Bice and C. Lewis. New York, NY: December 1989. 

"The Information Lens: An Intelligent System for Information Sharing and Coordination." Malone, Thomas W., K. R. Grant, K. Y. Lai, R. Rao and D. A. Rosenblitt. In Technological Support for Work Group Collaboration, edited by M. H. Olson. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1989.

“The Logic of Electronic Markets?” Malone, Thomas W., JoAnne Yates and Robert I Benjamin. Harvard Business Review, June 1989. 

"How Can Groups Communicate When They Use Different Languages?" J. Lee and Thomas W. Malone. COCS '88 Proceedings of the ACM SIGOIS and IEEECS TC-OA 1988 conference on Office information systems, edited by Robert B. Allen. New York, NY: Deccember 1988. 

"Intelligent software agents." Crowston, K. and Thomas W. Malone. Byte, December 1988.

"Object Lens: A 'Spreadsheet' for Cooperative Work." Lai, K. Y., Thomas W. Malone and K. C. Yu. ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems Vol. 6, No. 4 (1988): 332-335.  (1988)

"Information Technology and Work Organization." Crowston, K. and Thomas W. Malone. In Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, edited by M. Helander. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North Holland, 1988.

"Modeling the Performance of Organizational Structures." Malone, Thomas W. and S. A. Smith. Operations Research Vol. 36, No. 3 (1988): 421-436.  (1988)

"Computational agents to support cooperative work." Crowston, K. G. and Thomas W. Malone, MIT Sloan Working Paper 2008-88. March 1988.

"Enterprise: A Market-like Task Scheduler for Distributed Computing Environments." Malone, Thomas W., R. E. Fikes, K. R. Grant and M. T. Howard. In The Ecology of Computation, edited by B. A. Huberman. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North Holland, 1988. 

"What is coordination theory?" Malone, T. W., MIT Sloan Working Paper 2051-88. February 1988. 

"Cognitive science and organizational design: A case study of computer conferencing." Crowston, K., Thomas W. Malone and F. Lin. Human-Computer Interaction Vol. 3, No. 1 (1987): 59-85.  (1987)

"Intrinsic Motivation and Instructional Effectiveness in Computer-based Education." Lepper, M.R. and Thomas W. Malone. In Aptitude, Learning and Instruction III: Conative and Affective Process Analyses, edited by M. J. Farr and R.E. Snow, 255-286. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1987.

"Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning." Malone, Thomas W. and M. R. Lepper. In Aptitude, Learning and Instruction III: Conative and Affective Process Analyses, edited by M.J. Farr and R.E. Snow. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1987.

"Modeling coordination in organizations and markets." Malone, Thomas H. Management Science Vol. 33, No. 10 (1987):  (1987)

Electronic Markets and Electronic Hierarchies: Effects of New Information Technologies on Market Structures and Corporate Strategies.” Malone, Thomas W., JoAnne Yates and Robert I. Benjamin. The Communications of the ACM Vol. 30, No. 6 (1987): 484-497.  (1987)

"Intelligent information sharing systems." Malone, Thomas W., K. R. Grant, F. A. Turbak, S. A. Brobst, M. D. Cohen. Communications of the ACM Vol. 30, No. 5 (1987): 390-402.  (1987)

"The Information Lens:  An Intelligent System for Information Sharing and Coordination." Thomas W. Malone, K. R. Grant, K. Y. Lai, R. Rao and D. A. Rosenblitt. In Proceedings of the 1987 NYU Symposium on Technological Support for Work Group Collaboration. New York, NY: May 1987. 

"Semi-Structured Messages are Surprisingly Useful for Computer-Supported Coordination." Malone, Thomas W., K. R. Grant, K. Y. Lai, R. Rao and D. A. Rosenblitt. ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems Vol. 5, No. 2 (1987): 115-131.  (1987)

"Computer Support for Organizations: Toward an Organizational Science." Malone, Thomas W. In ​Interfacing Thought: Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction, edited by J. M. Carroll. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. 

"Semi-Structured Messages are Surprisingly Useful For Computer-Supported Coordination." Thomas W. Malone, Kenneth R. Grant, Kum-Yew Lai, Ramana Rao and David Rosenblitt. In Proceedings of the 1986 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work, edited by Herb Krasner. New York, NY: December 1986.

"Expert Systems: The Next Challenge for Management."  Luconi, F. L., Thomas W. Malone and Michael Scott S. Morton. Sloan Management Review, July 1986. 

"The Information Lens: An Intelligent System for Information Sharing in Organizations." Thomas W. Malone, K. R. Grant and F. A. Turbak. In CHI' 86 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, edited by Marilyn Mantei and Peter Orbeton. New York, NY: April 1986. 

"Toward Intelligent Message Routing." S. Brobst, Thomas W. Malone and K. Grant. In The second international symposium on computer message systems. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: January 1986.  

"Designing Organizational Interfaces." Thomas W. Malone. In CHI '85 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, edited by Lorraine Borman and Raoul Smith. New York, NY: December 1985. 

"Designing organizational interfaces." Malone, T. W., MIT Sloan Working Paper 1708-85. September 1985. 

"Organizational structure and information technology: Elements of a formal theory." T. W., Malone, MIT Sloan Working Paper 1710-85. August 1985.

"Toward intelligent message routing systems." Malone, T. W., S. A. Brobst, K. R. Grant and M. D. Cohen, MIT Sloan Working Paper 1709-85. August 1985. 

"Heuristics for designing enjoyable user interfaces: Lessons from computer games" Malone, Thomas W. In Human Factors in Computer Systems, edited by J.C. Thomas and M.L. Schneider, 1-12. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1984. 

"Microcomputers in education: Cognitive and social design principles." Malone, Thomas W. and J. A. Levin. In Instructional Software, edited by D.F. Walker and R.D. Hess, 20-36. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1984. 

"Tradeoffs in designing organizations:  Implications for new forms of human organizations and computer systems." Malone, Thomas W. and S. A. Smith, MIT Sloan Working Paper 1541-84. March 1984.

"Heuristics for Designing Enjoyable User Interfaces: Lessons From Computer Games." Thomas W. Malone. In CHI '82 Proceedings of the 1982 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, edited by Jean A. Nichols and Michael L. Schneider. New York, NY: December 1982. 

"RABBIT: An Intelligent Database Assistant." F. N. Tou, M. D. Williams, R. E. Fikes, D. A. Henderson and Thomas W. Malone. In Proceedings of the 1982 National Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, edited by Jay M. Tenenbaum. Palo Alto, CA: August 1982.

"RABBIT: Cognitive Science in Interface Design." M. D. Williams, F. N. Tou, R. E. Fikes, D. A. Henderson and Thomas W. Malone. In Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: August 1982. 

"Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction." Malone, Thomas W. Cognitive Science Vol. 5, No. 4 (1981): 333-370. (1981)

"What Makes Computer Games Fun?" Malone, Thomas W. Byte, December 1981.

"What Makes Things Fun to Learn? Heuristics for Designing Instructional Computer Games." Thomas W. Malone. In SIGSMALL '80 Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGSMALL symposium and the first SIGPC symposium on Small systems, edited by Philippe Lehot, Liza Loop and G. W. Gorsline. New York, NY: December 1980. 

"On the dynamics of two-person interactions." Thomas, E.A.C. and Malone, Thomas W. Psychological Review Vol. 86, No. 4 (1979): 331-360. (1979)

"Toward Optimal Allocation of Instructional Resources: Dividing Computer-Assisted Instruction Time Among Students." Malone, Thomas W., E. Macken and P. Suppes. Instructional Science Vol. 8, No. 2 (1979): 107-120.  (1979)

"Projecting student trajectories in a computer-assisted instruction curriculum." Malone, Thomas W., P. Suppes, E. Macken, M. Zanotti and L. Kanerva. Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 71, No. 1 (1979): 74-84.  (1979)

"Toward Optimal Management of CAI: Allocating Instructional Time and Motivating Students." Thomas W. Malone, E. Macken and P. Suppes. In Proceedings of the 1978 Conference of the Association for the Development of Computer-based Instructional Systems. Columbus, OH: March 1978. 

"Computer simulation of two-person interactions." Malone, Thomas W. Behavioral Science Vol. 20, No. 4 (1975): 260-267.  (1975)

 

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